What does each of the dash in "rw------" stand for?

Please can I get documentation or some explanation of what each of the dash in “rw------” stand for? I know r is for read and w is for write. But what does the first dash to the last represent?

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rw- user has read, write permission but no executable permission

--- group user rights, no read, write or executable right

--- other users no rights, no rwx


If you like to change permissions for your users you can follow this guide Linux File Permissions Tutorial: How to View and Change Permission


thanks @raju very helpful. But I see in some situation they put “r-------”. In most cases the first dash has r.

welcome @jetisco4u

column 1 shows - for files and d for directories. so some may drop column 1 in the documentations. make your there are 3 permissions for each of user, group and others in this format — — —

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