Population

I am probably missing something obvious here but where do you enter population numbers for organization units to use as denominators for indicators?

Mark Spohr MD

Create a new data element called "Population". Probably want to use
"Average" as an aggregation operator here. Add it to a dataset like
any normal data element and enter the data through the data entry
screen. :slight_smile:

···

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:01 AM, Mark Spohr <mhspohr@gmail.com> wrote:

I am probably missing something obvious here but where do you enter
population numbers for organization units to use as denominators for
indicators?

Mark Spohr MD

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Except each org unit will have population.

How do you specify which to use in an indicator? … will these be aggregated? … what if no low level numbers?

Mark Spohr MD

···

On Mar 8, 2012 9:10 PM, “Jason Pickering” jason.p.pickering@gmail.com wrote:

Create a new data element called “Population”. Probably want to use

“Average” as an aggregation operator here. Add it to a dataset like

any normal data element and enter the data through the data entry

screen. :slight_smile:

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:01 AM, Mark Spohr mhspohr@gmail.com wrote:

I am probably missing something obvious here but where do you enter

population numbers for organization units to use as denominators for

indicators?

Mark Spohr MD


Mailing list: https://launchpad.net/~dhis2-users

Post to : dhis2-users@lists.launchpad.net

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Yes, that is the point. Each orgunit should have a population for a
specified time period (for instance, yearly population values). So,
the indicator formula would look something like this

Numerator = Whatever data element
Denominator = Population

If you enter at level 3, you will not be able to get level 4
indicators, but values will be able to be aggregated up the hierarchy.

···

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:20 AM, Mark Spohr <mhspohr@gmail.com> wrote:

Except each org unit will have population.
How do you specify which to use in an indicator? ... will these be
aggregated? ... what if no low level numbers?

Mark Spohr MD

On Mar 8, 2012 9:10 PM, "Jason Pickering" <jason.p.pickering@gmail.com> > wrote:

Create a new data element called "Population". Probably want to use
"Average" as an aggregation operator here. Add it to a dataset like
any normal data element and enter the data through the data entry
screen. :slight_smile:

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:01 AM, Mark Spohr <mhspohr@gmail.com> wrote:
> I am probably missing something obvious here but where do you enter
> population numbers for organization units to use as denominators for
> indicators?
>
> Mark Spohr MD
>
>
> _______________________________________________
> Mailing list: DHIS 2 Users in Launchpad
> Post to : dhis2-users@lists.launchpad.net
> Unsubscribe : DHIS 2 Users in Launchpad
> More help : ListHelp - Launchpad Help
>

Great

Thanks

I was looking to enter pop in the org unit but this makes better sense.

Mark Spohr MD

···

On Mar 8, 2012 9:31 PM, “Jason Pickering” jason.p.pickering@gmail.com wrote:

Yes, that is the point. Each orgunit should have a population for a

specified time period (for instance, yearly population values). So,

the indicator formula would look something like this

Numerator = Whatever data element

Denominator = Population

If you enter at level 3, you will not be able to get level 4

indicators, but values will be able to be aggregated up the hierarchy.

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:20 AM, Mark Spohr mhspohr@gmail.com wrote:

Except each org unit will have population.

How do you specify which to use in an indicator? … will these be

aggregated? … what if no low level numbers?

Mark Spohr MD

On Mar 8, 2012 9:10 PM, “Jason Pickering” jason.p.pickering@gmail.com > > > wrote:

Create a new data element called “Population”. Probably want to use

“Average” as an aggregation operator here. Add it to a dataset like

any normal data element and enter the data through the data entry

screen. :slight_smile:

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:01 AM, Mark Spohr mhspohr@gmail.com wrote:

I am probably missing something obvious here but where do you enter

population numbers for organization units to use as denominators for

indicators?

Mark Spohr MD


Mailing list: https://launchpad.net/~dhis2-users

Post to : dhis2-users@lists.launchpad.net

Unsubscribe : https://launchpad.net/~dhis2-users

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Hi Mark,

maybe to define a “constant value” can help you there, one per organization…

Constant values are accessible from the indicators num. / denom. definition.

You can define constant values in Data Administration -> Constant

Regards,

Marta

···

On 9 March 2012 06:35, Mark Spohr mhspohr@gmail.com wrote:

Great

Thanks

I was looking to enter pop in the org unit but this makes better sense.

Mark Spohr MD

On Mar 8, 2012 9:31 PM, “Jason Pickering” jason.p.pickering@gmail.com wrote:

Yes, that is the point. Each orgunit should have a population for a

specified time period (for instance, yearly population values). So,

the indicator formula would look something like this

Numerator = Whatever data element

Denominator = Population

If you enter at level 3, you will not be able to get level 4

indicators, but values will be able to be aggregated up the hierarchy.

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:20 AM, Mark Spohr mhspohr@gmail.com wrote:

Except each org unit will have population.

How do you specify which to use in an indicator? … will these be

aggregated? … what if no low level numbers?

Mark Spohr MD

On Mar 8, 2012 9:10 PM, “Jason Pickering” jason.p.pickering@gmail.com > > > > > wrote:

Create a new data element called “Population”. Probably want to use

“Average” as an aggregation operator here. Add it to a dataset like

any normal data element and enter the data through the data entry

screen. :slight_smile:

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:01 AM, Mark Spohr mhspohr@gmail.com wrote:

I am probably missing something obvious here but where do you enter

population numbers for organization units to use as denominators for

indicators?

Mark Spohr MD


Mailing list: https://launchpad.net/~dhis2-users

Post to : dhis2-users@lists.launchpad.net

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You should not use a constant. Each organisation unit will have its
own population, and it will change from year to year, so it should be
a data element just like any other aggregate data element. A constant
is just that, something like "Pi", which will never change over time
and does not depend on an organisation unit.

···

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:41 AM, Marta Vila <martavila@gmail.com> wrote:

Hi Mark,

maybe to define a "constant value" can help you there, one per
organization...
Constant values are accessible from the indicators num. / denom. definition.

You can define constant values in Data Administration -> Constant

Regards,

Marta

On 9 March 2012 06:35, Mark Spohr <mhspohr@gmail.com> wrote:

Great
Thanks

I was looking to enter pop in the org unit but this makes better sense.

Mark Spohr MD

On Mar 8, 2012 9:31 PM, "Jason Pickering" <jason.p.pickering@gmail.com> >> wrote:

Yes, that is the point. Each orgunit should have a population for a
specified time period (for instance, yearly population values). So,
the indicator formula would look something like this

Numerator = Whatever data element
Denominator = Population

If you enter at level 3, you will not be able to get level 4
indicators, but values will be able to be aggregated up the hierarchy.

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:20 AM, Mark Spohr <mhspohr@gmail.com> wrote:
> Except each org unit will have population.
> How do you specify which to use in an indicator? ... will these be
> aggregated? ... what if no low level numbers?
>
> Mark Spohr MD
>
> On Mar 8, 2012 9:10 PM, "Jason Pickering" <jason.p.pickering@gmail.com> >>> > wrote:
>>
>> Create a new data element called "Population". Probably want to use
>> "Average" as an aggregation operator here. Add it to a dataset like
>> any normal data element and enter the data through the data entry
>> screen. :slight_smile:
>>
>>
>> On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:01 AM, Mark Spohr <mhspohr@gmail.com> wrote:
>> > I am probably missing something obvious here but where do you enter
>> > population numbers for organization units to use as denominators for
>> > indicators?
>> >
>> > Mark Spohr MD
>> >
>> >
>> > _______________________________________________
>> > Mailing list: DHIS 2 Users in Launchpad
>> > Post to : dhis2-users@lists.launchpad.net
>> > Unsubscribe : DHIS 2 Users in Launchpad
>> > More help : ListHelp - Launchpad Help
>> >

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this is a very limited use of constants… but you are rigth, by definition they should never change.

···

On 9 March 2012 06:43, Jason Pickering jason.p.pickering@gmail.com wrote:

You should not use a constant. Each organisation unit will have its

own population, and it will change from year to year, so it should be

a data element just like any other aggregate data element. A constant

is just that, something like “Pi”, which will never change over time

and does not depend on an organisation unit.

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:41 AM, Marta Vila martavila@gmail.com wrote:

Hi Mark,

maybe to define a “constant value” can help you there, one per

organization…

Constant values are accessible from the indicators num. / denom. definition.

You can define constant values in Data Administration -> Constant

Regards,

Marta

On 9 March 2012 06:35, Mark Spohr mhspohr@gmail.com wrote:

Great

Thanks

I was looking to enter pop in the org unit but this makes better sense.

Mark Spohr MD

On Mar 8, 2012 9:31 PM, “Jason Pickering” jason.p.pickering@gmail.com > > >> wrote:

Yes, that is the point. Each orgunit should have a population for a

specified time period (for instance, yearly population values). So,

the indicator formula would look something like this

Numerator = Whatever data element

Denominator = Population

If you enter at level 3, you will not be able to get level 4

indicators, but values will be able to be aggregated up the hierarchy.

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:20 AM, Mark Spohr mhspohr@gmail.com wrote:

Except each org unit will have population.

How do you specify which to use in an indicator? … will these be

aggregated? … what if no low level numbers?

Mark Spohr MD

On Mar 8, 2012 9:10 PM, “Jason Pickering” jason.p.pickering@gmail.com > > >>> > wrote:

Create a new data element called “Population”. Probably want to use

“Average” as an aggregation operator here. Add it to a dataset like

any normal data element and enter the data through the data entry

screen. :slight_smile:

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:01 AM, Mark Spohr mhspohr@gmail.com wrote:

I am probably missing something obvious here but where do you enter

population numbers for organization units to use as denominators for

indicators?

Mark Spohr MD


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Just to add to this:

If you don't have pop data below a certain level, but plenty of other data in DHIS, you can always estimate population by looking at service data. This needs some work, and is dependent on decent (and uniform) data completeness.

Example: Region 1, with a known population, and under it: District A, B, C with unknown population.

Find a basket of data elements that should reflect normal use of the primary health services (and which you have plenty data for, complete and over time), typically including "headcount", ANC visits, Immunization, etc. Find the totals for A, B, C, and their respective share of Region 1's total. Then you can split Region 1 population into approximate district shares.

This does not represent the actual target population, but those that use the facilities included. At facility level, this can have some importance as it hides the information about preferance of facilities, i.e. we fail to find those facilities with low utilization compared to their real catchment population.

Johan

···

On 09.03.2012 06:31, Jason Pickering wrote:

Yes, that is the point. Each orgunit should have a population for a
specified time period (for instance, yearly population values). So,
the indicator formula would look something like this

Numerator = Whatever data element
Denominator = Population

If you enter at level 3, you will not be able to get level 4
indicators, but values will be able to be aggregated up the hierarchy.

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:20 AM, Mark Spohr<mhspohr@gmail.com> wrote:

Except each org unit will have population.
How do you specify which to use in an indicator? ... will these be
aggregated? ... what if no low level numbers?

Mark Spohr MD

On Mar 8, 2012 9:10 PM, "Jason Pickering"<jason.p.pickering@gmail.com> >> wrote:

Create a new data element called "Population". Probably want to use
"Average" as an aggregation operator here. Add it to a dataset like
any normal data element and enter the data through the data entry
screen. :slight_smile:

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:01 AM, Mark Spohr<mhspohr@gmail.com> wrote:

I am probably missing something obvious here but where do you enter
population numbers for organization units to use as denominators for
indicators?

Mark Spohr MD

_______________________________________________
Mailing list: https://launchpad.net/~dhis2-users
Post to : dhis2-users@lists.launchpad.net
Unsubscribe : https://launchpad.net/~dhis2-users
More help : https://help.launchpad.net/ListHelp

_______________________________________________
Mailing list: https://launchpad.net/~dhis2-users
Post to : dhis2-users@lists.launchpad.net
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Hi Mark,

Just to add one more thing to what Jason wrote.

Typically the population data sets are yearly, while the numerator data is most likely monthly or quarterly.

To be able to do data analysis on coverage rates within the normal 0-100% range the indicators have a property called annualized.

If you set annualized to ‘Yes’ for an indicator then a relative annualization factor will be added to the indicator calcuation each time a new value is calculated.

Let’s say you have an indicator “BCG coverage <1 year (%)” with a numerator “BCG doses administered <1 year” (collected monthly) and denominator “Population <1 year” (collected yearly), and an indicator type ‘%’ with factor=100.

The calculation of the monthly indicator value for “BCG coverage <1 year (%)” would be 100 x 12 x (BCG doses administered <1 y / Population < 1 year).

The quarterly indicator calculation would be 100 x 4 x (BCG doses administered / Population < 1 year) etc.

Ola

···

Ola Hodne Titlestad (Mr)
HISP
Department of Informatics
University of Oslo

Mobile: +47 48069736
Home address: Vetlandsvn. 95B, 0685 Oslo, Norway. Googlemaps link

On 9 March 2012 06:31, Jason Pickering jason.p.pickering@gmail.com wrote:

Yes, that is the point. Each orgunit should have a population for a

specified time period (for instance, yearly population values). So,

the indicator formula would look something like this

Numerator = Whatever data element

Denominator = Population

If you enter at level 3, you will not be able to get level 4

indicators, but values will be able to be aggregated up the hierarchy.

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:20 AM, Mark Spohr mhspohr@gmail.com wrote:

Except each org unit will have population.

How do you specify which to use in an indicator? … will these be

aggregated? … what if no low level numbers?

Mark Spohr MD

On Mar 8, 2012 9:10 PM, “Jason Pickering” jason.p.pickering@gmail.com > > > wrote:

Create a new data element called “Population”. Probably want to use

“Average” as an aggregation operator here. Add it to a dataset like

any normal data element and enter the data through the data entry

screen. :slight_smile:

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:01 AM, Mark Spohr mhspohr@gmail.com wrote:

I am probably missing something obvious here but where do you enter

population numbers for organization units to use as denominators for

indicators?

Mark Spohr MD


Mailing list: https://launchpad.net/~dhis2-users

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Thanks for this additional information. This is a very intelligent feature for it to automatically annualize the counts.

···

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 1:09 AM, Ola Hodne Titlestad olati@ifi.uio.no wrote:

Hi Mark,

Just to add one more thing to what Jason wrote.

Typically the population data sets are yearly, while the numerator data is most likely monthly or quarterly.

To be able to do data analysis on coverage rates within the normal 0-100% range the indicators have a property called annualized.

If you set annualized to ‘Yes’ for an indicator then a relative annualization factor will be added to the indicator calcuation each time a new value is calculated.

Let’s say you have an indicator “BCG coverage <1 year (%)” with a numerator “BCG doses administered <1 year” (collected monthly) and denominator “Population <1 year” (collected yearly), and an indicator type ‘%’ with factor=100.

The calculation of the monthly indicator value for “BCG coverage <1 year (%)” would be 100 x 12 x (BCG doses administered <1 y / Population < 1 year).

The quarterly indicator calculation would be 100 x 4 x (BCG doses administered / Population < 1 year) etc.

Ola



Ola Hodne Titlestad (Mr)
HISP
Department of Informatics
University of Oslo

Mobile: +47 48069736
Home address: Vetlandsvn. 95B, 0685 Oslo, Norway. Googlemaps link

On 9 March 2012 06:31, Jason Pickering jason.p.pickering@gmail.com wrote:

Yes, that is the point. Each orgunit should have a population for a

specified time period (for instance, yearly population values). So,

the indicator formula would look something like this

Numerator = Whatever data element

Denominator = Population

If you enter at level 3, you will not be able to get level 4

indicators, but values will be able to be aggregated up the hierarchy.

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:20 AM, Mark Spohr mhspohr@gmail.com wrote:

Except each org unit will have population.

How do you specify which to use in an indicator? … will these be

aggregated? … what if no low level numbers?

Mark Spohr MD

On Mar 8, 2012 9:10 PM, “Jason Pickering” jason.p.pickering@gmail.com > > > > > wrote:

Create a new data element called “Population”. Probably want to use

“Average” as an aggregation operator here. Add it to a dataset like

any normal data element and enter the data through the data entry

screen. :slight_smile:

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:01 AM, Mark Spohr mhspohr@gmail.com wrote:

I am probably missing something obvious here but where do you enter

population numbers for organization units to use as denominators for

indicators?

Mark Spohr MD


Mailing list: https://launchpad.net/~dhis2-users

Post to : dhis2-users@lists.launchpad.net

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Mark Spohr, MD

Thanks for this idea. In some ways this could be a good solution to the sticky problem of determining catchment areas. It is always difficult to get local population figures and to then calculate the catchment area for each facility. However, this solution of prorating the population by common OP visits would get around this problem. It would also account for things such as a particular clinic being more “accessible” in spite of greater distance, etc. Often the boundaries of catchment areas are drawn along political lines which may not correspond to natural patterns of access (such as a facility being near a market).

On the other hand, it will mask facilities which people avoid because they are doing a poor job or don’t have proper resources.

Fortunately, we have a recent census. However, we don’t have low level village numbers yet so it will be interesting to try out this prorated scheme.

Regards,
Mark

···

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 12:27 AM, Johan Sæbø johansa@ifi.uio.no wrote:

Just to add to this:

If you don’t have pop data below a certain level, but plenty of other data in DHIS, you can always estimate population by looking at service data. This needs some work, and is dependent on decent (and uniform) data completeness.

Example: Region 1, with a known population, and under it: District A, B, C with unknown population.

Find a basket of data elements that should reflect normal use of the primary health services (and which you have plenty data for, complete and over time), typically including “headcount”, ANC visits, Immunization, etc. Find the totals for A, B, C, and their respective share of Region 1’s total. Then you can split Region 1 population into approximate district shares.

This does not represent the actual target population, but those that use the facilities included. At facility level, this can have some importance as it hides the information about preferance of facilities, i.e. we fail to find those facilities with low utilization compared to their real catchment population.

Johan

On 09.03.2012 06:31, Jason Pickering wrote:

Yes, that is the point. Each orgunit should have a population for a

specified time period (for instance, yearly population values). So,

the indicator formula would look something like this

Numerator = Whatever data element

Denominator = Population

If you enter at level 3, you will not be able to get level 4

indicators, but values will be able to be aggregated up the hierarchy.

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:20 AM, Mark Spohrmhspohr@gmail.com wrote:

Except each org unit will have population.

How do you specify which to use in an indicator? … will these be

aggregated? … what if no low level numbers?

Mark Spohr MD

On Mar 8, 2012 9:10 PM, "Jason Pickering"jason.p.pickering@gmail.com > > > > > > wrote:

Create a new data element called “Population”. Probably want to use

“Average” as an aggregation operator here. Add it to a dataset like

any normal data element and enter the data through the data entry

screen. :slight_smile:

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:01 AM, Mark Spohrmhspohr@gmail.com wrote:

I am probably missing something obvious here but where do you enter

population numbers for organization units to use as denominators for

indicators?

Mark Spohr MD


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Mark Spohr, MD

Hi Mark,
The other feature you can leverage here is the "Aggregation levels"
http://dhis2.org/doc/snapshot/en/user/html/ch04.html#d5e495. In Zambia
we use a catchment population at the facility level (to be able to
take into these factors which you mention) but from the district level
onwards, indicators are calculated with official district populations.
Facility level indicators are calculated with catchment populations,
but these catchment populations do not necessarily add up to the total
of the district population. Proper configuration of the "Aggregation
levels" can allow you to implement this type of situation.

Best regards,
Jason

···

On Sun, Mar 11, 2012 at 2:47 AM, Mark Spohr <mhspohr@gmail.com> wrote:

Thanks for this idea. In some ways this could be a good solution to the
sticky problem of determining catchment areas. It is always difficult to
get local population figures and to then calculate the catchment area for
each facility. However, this solution of prorating the population by common
OP visits would get around this problem. It would also account for things
such as a particular clinic being more "accessible" in spite of greater
distance, etc. Often the boundaries of catchment areas are drawn along
political lines which may not correspond to natural patterns of access (such
as a facility being near a market).
On the other hand, it will mask facilities which people avoid because they
are doing a poor job or don't have proper resources.

Fortunately, we have a recent census. However, we don't have low level
village numbers yet so it will be interesting to try out this prorated
scheme.

Regards,
Mark

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 12:27 AM, Johan Sæbø <johansa@ifi.uio.no> wrote:

Just to add to this:

If you don't have pop data below a certain level, but plenty of other data
in DHIS, you can always estimate population by looking at service data. This
needs some work, and is dependent on decent (and uniform) data completeness.

Example: Region 1, with a known population, and under it: District A, B, C
with unknown population.

Find a basket of data elements that should reflect normal use of the
primary health services (and which you have plenty data for, complete and
over time), typically including "headcount", ANC visits, Immunization, etc.
Find the totals for A, B, C, and their respective share of Region 1's total.
Then you can split Region 1 population into approximate district shares.

This does not represent the actual target population, but those that use
the facilities included. At facility level, this can have some importance as
it hides the information about preferance of facilities, i.e. we fail to
find those facilities with low utilization compared to their real catchment
population.

Johan

On 09.03.2012 06:31, Jason Pickering wrote:

Yes, that is the point. Each orgunit should have a population for a
specified time period (for instance, yearly population values). So,
the indicator formula would look something like this

Numerator = Whatever data element
Denominator = Population

If you enter at level 3, you will not be able to get level 4
indicators, but values will be able to be aggregated up the hierarchy.

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:20 AM, Mark Spohr<mhspohr@gmail.com> wrote:

Except each org unit will have population.
How do you specify which to use in an indicator? ... will these be
aggregated? ... what if no low level numbers?

Mark Spohr MD

On Mar 8, 2012 9:10 PM, "Jason Pickering"<jason.p.pickering@gmail.com> >>>> wrote:

Create a new data element called "Population". Probably want to use
"Average" as an aggregation operator here. Add it to a dataset like
any normal data element and enter the data through the data entry
screen. :slight_smile:

On Fri, Mar 9, 2012 at 7:01 AM, Mark Spohr<mhspohr@gmail.com> wrote:

I am probably missing something obvious here but where do you enter
population numbers for organization units to use as denominators for
indicators?

Mark Spohr MD

_______________________________________________
Mailing list: DHIS 2 Users in Launchpad
Post to : dhis2-users@lists.launchpad.net
Unsubscribe : DHIS 2 Users in Launchpad
More help : ListHelp - Launchpad Help

_______________________________________________
Mailing list: DHIS 2 Users in Launchpad
Post to : dhis2-users@lists.launchpad.net
Unsubscribe : DHIS 2 Users in Launchpad
More help : ListHelp - Launchpad Help

_______________________________________________
Mailing list: DHIS 2 Users in Launchpad
Post to : dhis2-users@lists.launchpad.net
Unsubscribe : DHIS 2 Users in Launchpad
More help : ListHelp - Launchpad Help

--
Mark Spohr, MD

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